- Cartilage, ligaments and tendons
- Skin and muscle tissues
- Blood vessels
- Gastrointestinal tract
Evidence has emerged that the collagen turnover rates are higher for females than males.
It was also found that the rates of tendon synthesis in females was slower than in males which was proposed to influence female sex hormones.
- This may represent a basis for explaining why females may have a higher susceptibility to soft tissue damage with slower rates of repair from injury.
Collagen has a very interesting structure where one third of the protein is comprised of the amino acid glycine. Since collagen is the most abundant structural protein in the body, this places a lot of demand on the body to make and supply glycine or receive it in the diet. Further pressure on the demand for glycine is strongly suggested because:
- Glycine is lost in very high quantities in human sweat and urine.
- Females lose nearly twice as much glycine in sweat as males
We now think that this loss of glycine via excretion pathways may significantly contribute to a limit in supply of this key amino acid in females. This would provide some explanation as to why collagen synthesis in females is slower than in males.
The OptimAAte and ElectrAAte products both contain glycine, as well as the other amino acids that are lost at disproportionately faster rates than other amino acids during exercise The ElectrAAte also provides electrolytes in addition to the amino acids that would be required after or during exercise and prolonged work in hot conditions.